Overview of Disability

Disability Back Pay

Disability Requirements

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How long do cases take?

How to win Disability

SSD Mistakes to avoid

Disability for Mental

What if you get denied?

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Disability through SSA

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How do I qualify for it?

Working and Disability

Disability Award Notice

Disability Lawyer Q&A

Disability Conditions List

What is a disability?

Your Medical Evidence

Filing for your Disability

Disability Eligibility

SSD SSI Definitions

Recent Questions

SSDRC Disability Blog

How Does A Social Security Disability Examiner Determine a Personís Functional Limitations?

Social Security disability examiners must make a medical determination that involves ascertaining an individualís currently level of physical and/or mental functioning. Since disability claims are largely determined on the basis of what a person is no longer capable of doing (i.e. work activity), this really means determining the individual's functional limitations.

Functional limitations, from the standpoint of the Social Security Administration, may be exertional, such as the ability or inability to sit, stand, lift, or carry. They may also be non-exertional and involve the degree to which a person can, or cannot, reach, bend, hear, see, smell, concentrate, remember, interact with other individuals in a work setting, etc.

Determining a claimant's functional limitations is crucial to the outcome of a disability case because if a case is not approved on the basis of a Social Security Disability listing (the majority of cases are not), then the only means of approving a disability claim will be to determine that the claimant has funtional limitations that:

A) rule out their ability to do their past work and

B) contribute to an overall medical-vocational profile that makes it impossible for the individual to switch to some type of other work.

How does a disability examiner determine a claimant's functional limitations?

Disability examiners begin the process by requesting medical treatment records from all the medical sources provided by the person at their disability interview (conducted by a CR, or claims representative, at a Social Security office).

When filing for disability, claimants do not have to provide their actual medical records themselves (though it is possible for a claimant to personally deliver their medical records at the time of application--which can have the effect of speeding up the disability case) just the names of their treating medical sources, i.e. the various clinics, hospitals, and doctor's offices where they have received treatment.

This is because medical records are paid for by the state disability agency that makes disability claim decisions for the social security administration. This agency is known in most states as DDS, or disability determination services.

It is at DDS that a person's case is assigned to a disability examiner. Typically, the very first action performed on a case will be for the examiner to request the claimant's medical records.

Note: This is why it is crucial for a claimant to supply a detailed list of their medical treatment sources, to enable the examiner to obtain the records quickly but also to ensure that the examiner actually can obtain the records (correct names and addresses of treatment sources is vital).

The examiner will need to obtain current medical records to document that the claimant is presently disabled, but will also need to obtain older medical records to verify the claimant's onset date which can impact how much the claimant may receive in disability back pay.

Once the disability examiner reviews the disability claim file, they can determine if there seems to be enough medical information to make their disability determination.

Note: Medical records must include medical records that are not more than ninety days old in order for the disability examiner to make a decision.

Not only does the disability examiner have to get medical information about the state of an individualís health, they have to get information about how the personís ability to perform routine activities of daily living (including work activity) is affected by their disabling condition or conditions.

They get this kind of information from questionnaires provided to the disability applicant and their third party contact person (this person is provided by the applicant at the time of application), or through phone contact with the disability applicant and/or their third party person. They may even contact past employers to garner information about how an individualís impairment affected their work performance.

For instance, did the disabled individualís employer give them special considerations that helped them keep their employment (i.e. rest periods, more time off, less expectation with regard to production, etc). Or did their employer have to terminate their employment because of the limitations their disability imposed upon them.

There are many ways a disability examiner can determine an individualís state of health and their residual functional capacity. If the disability examiner determines that their residual functional capacity is so restrictive that is not only prevents the performance of any of the personís past work but also rules out the ability to perform any other type of work, the person may be approved to receive disability benefits from Social Security.

Return to:  Social Security Disability Resource Center, or read answers to Questions

Related pages:

How Does A Social Security Disability Examiner Determine a Personís Functional Limitations?
How does Social Security determine if I am disabled or not?
How are medical records and work history used to determine a social security disability claim?
How will Social Security Determine if you get Disability Benefits?
If I die on Social Security Disability, will my wife receive anything?

Information on the following topics can be found here: Social Security Disability Questions and in these subsections:

Frequently asked questions about getting Denied for Disability Benefits | FAQ on Disability Claim Representation | Info about Social Security Disability Approvals and Being Approved | FAQ on Social Security Disability SSI decisions | The SSD SSI Decision Process and what gets taken into consideration | Disability hearings before Judges | Medical exams for disability claims | Applying for Disability in various states | Selecting and hiring Disability Lawyers | Applying for Disability in North Carolina | Recent articles and answers to questions about SSD and SSI

These pages answer some of the most basic questions for individuals who are considering filing a claim.

Filing for disability - How to file for SSD or SSI and the Information that is needed by Social Security
How to Apply for Disability - What medical conditions can you apply and qualify for?
Applying for Disability - How long does it take to get Social Security Disability or SSI benefits?
What happens if I file a disability application and it is denied by a disability examiner or Judge?
How to Prove you are disabled and qualify to win disability benefits
How do you prove your disability case if you have a mental condition or impairment?
Social Security Disability Back pay and How Long it Takes to Qualify for it and receive it
Social Security Disability SSI - Eligibility Requirements and Qualifications Criteria